Inauguration 2017 has been fraught with so many side issues (Women’s Marches, No Legal Sea Food Chowder, Girl Scouts Marching, Rockettes Kicking or Not) – it dawned on me that I know nothing about the underpinnings of this event … so I thought I would do some research!
Before I describe some inauguration research sources, however, here are some basic inauguration facts. First of all, it turns out that the only Constitutional requirement for the inauguration is that the president-elect take an oath or affirmation before that person can enter on the Execution of the office of the presidency. The wording of that oath is specified in Article II, Section One, Clause 8 of the United States Constitution: "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."
The Constitution does not specify who shall administer the oath to the president, but by and large that role has been performed by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Interestingly, George Washington was sworn in by Robert Livingston, an eminent New York lawyer, a member of the Committee of Five who drafted the Declaration of Independence, and considered a Founding Father of the United States, but not a member of the Court.
As for the day of the inauguration, that day was not established as January 20 until 1933 with the passage of the Twentieth Amendment to the Constitution, adopted on January 23 of that year. The previous inauguration date was March 4th and was set by the Congress of the Confederation in September 1788 after the necessary nine states had ratified the Constitution.
And now for the research component of this post: The Library of Congress has a comprehensive digital collection (Washington to Obama) of inauguration material including diaries and letters written by presidents and those who witnessed the inaugurations, handwritten drafts of inaugural addresses, broadsides, inaugural tickets and programs, prints, photographs, and sheet music. Unbelievable that we can see George Washington’s handwritten inaugural speech. Check out the link for President Obama, including his 2009 official portrait painted when he still had dark hair.
One can also view video of inauguration addresses from President Franklin D. Roosevelt to President Barrack Obama at this C-SPAN link. Recent events have made me nostalgic – it was interesting to look back at previous January 20ths.
Since 1901, the Joint Congressional Committee on Inauguration Ceremonies has plied the laboring oar in putting together the day’s events. That Committee has put together this website that chronicles inaugurations going back to 1901 and the site collects a fascinating assortment of memorabilia including prayers said, hymns sung, the day’s weather and first facts – for example, Truman’s inauguration in 1949 was the first inauguration televised.
For an in-depth look at past inaugurations, consult Democracy's Big Day: The Inauguration of Our President, 1789-2013 by Jim Bendat, author of the most recent Washington Post’s Five Myths column available here.
Enjoy the day!